Universiteit Leiden

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Using library materials in education

Make books and articles accessible for students within the requirements of copyright law.

Linking to articles, books, or book chapters is always allowed.

Linking to articles, books, or book chapters is always allowed, provided that these are legally obtainable. Is the publication available in Leiden University’s Digital Library? Then create a link

Short sections

‘Short sections’ of text can be posted online. This has been arranged in the reader agreement with PRO Foundation. This agreement indicates which part of a text may be used without permission. PRO Foundation has been appointed as the central reporting and payment agency in this regard. 

Summarised a short section is: 
a. Non-fiction book: a maximum of 10.000 words, but no more than a third of the complete work; when using several parts from the same non-fiction book, the total may not exceed 10.000 words 
b. Journals: a maximum of 8000 words, but no more than a third of the instalment in question; 
c. Literary works: a maximum of 2500 words or a maximum of 100 lines of poetry; but no more than a tenth of the complete work. 
d. Graphs, tables, diagrams, photographs, and illustrations can be copied in their entirety as a short part, but no more than 25 figures from the same original work. If a graph or illustration is copied as part of a text, the image counts for 200 words. 
e. Raw government publications and jurisprudence are exempted from copyright. This applies to jurisprudence in its original form, as it was made available by the court. So this does not apply to verdicts collected and published by a publisher. The same goes for legislation: only legislation from the Staatscourant, the Staatsblad, and the Tractatenblad can be freely copied in Blackboard. 

Note: the maximums given above are the number of words you are allowed to copy.  Helpful tools to count words are Wordcount listed under Tools in Microsoft Word and the site Worldcounttools which counts words in uploaded pdf-files.

Long sections

When using long sections (not covered by the short-section ruling) first check if posting the entire pdf in Blackboard is allowed. The UBL has entered into a large number of license deals with publishers. A number of these contracts specify that articles or chapters may be included in printed or digital readers for the purposes of education without having to pay extra fees. The module Usage regulations licensed e-resources indicates if a publisher allows posting of an article in Blackboard. Please note: a publisher’s policy can change. Check regularly whether use in Blackboard is still permitted. We therefore recommend to link to articles instead of posting the entire article in Blackboard. 

When a publisher isn't indicated on the list, the best choice is to create a link in Blackboard to the article on the publisher’s site. Linking is always allowed (see Linking to Library Resources).

Open Access

You can also search for Open Access publications. These can be posted in Blackboard without problems.

Long sections without license deals and linking possibilities

When using a long section which can not be found in the Catalogue or elsewhere on internet (and linking is not possible) then request permission at the PRO foundation for posting in Blackboard. The PRO Foundation is authorized by many publishers to handle requests made against standard terms. First submit an application for approval through the PRO Foundation portal. A registration number to login to this portal is available at the UFB Service Desk (readers@ufb.leidenuniv.nl). The portal also has a digital word counter. PRO Foundation will then send an invoice. 

If the PRO Foundation cannot handle consent application itself, then the permission request is forwarded to the appropriate publisher, or returned to the applicant. 

The cost of consent for non-short extracts can be very high and are borne by the institute. It is highly recommended to opt for a printed reader in these cases. The Service Desk will arrange the remittance to the PRO Foundation and the costs are passed on to the students in the reader price.

Paper readers

We strongly recommend including articles in a paper course reader. The Service Desk manages permission and costs with PRO Foundation. Costs are passed on to students in the price of the reader. 

Check the module Usage regulations licensed e-resources if UBL has a license that permits the publication's inclusion in a paper reader. In the list you'll find electronic journals, databases and e-books that can be accessed through the library and whose license permits use without restrictions in a printed reader. The list is updated regularly and is subject to changes.

Video and audio

  1. Linking to images, videos, or other material online is always allowed! 
  2. Images with a licence that allows re-use (Creative Commons e.g.) can always be posted on Blackboard. You can search for these images through Google Images > Advanced Image Search (select ‘labeled for reuse’ under Usage Rights). More information on the Creative Commons licences
  3. Fair Use rules allow you to quote images, works of art, photographs and short video and audio fragments and reuse these in Blackboard. Quotes must be functional, and can not only be used merely to liven up Blackboard. 
  4. The embedding of materials such as videos is allowed in Blackboard only if the material is legally published and freely accessible on another site. 
  5. Always indicate the correct source for each type of file in Blackboard. As far is reasonably possible the source, including the maker’s name, has to be clearly indicated.