Universiteit Leiden

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Subject guide

Searching for items in Arabic, Persian and Hebrew

Since 2015, all items are catalogued in the original scripts. Therefore, you may use Arabic, Persian and Hebrew script in the library catalogue to find resources in these languages. To find items that we received before 2015 in the catalogue, you will have to use transliteration.

A Dutch system was in use until 2015, characterized by the use of diacritics. Since 2015, the international ALA-LC system has been in use. This new system is common in libraries worldwide. Entries added since 2015 also include Arabic script. Older entries have not been adapted to the new system. Therefore, trying out both romanization systems is necessary for searching specific titles.

Table Romanization Arabic

A Dutch system was in use until 2015. After that, the library switched to the international ALA-LC system. Persian script has also been added to the records since 2015. Older entries in the catalogue are not adapted to the new system and Persian script. Searching twice may therefore be necessary. Diacritics do not have to be typed while searching. In the table below, the character that can be used for searching is between parentheses.

Table Romanization Persian

A new, international system is in use since 2018 together with Hebrew script. Older entries have not been adapted to the new system and do not contain Hebrew script. It may therefore be necessary to search twice. Diacritics do not have to be typed while searching. In the table below, the character that can be used for searching is between parentheses.

Table Romanization Hebrew

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